Consumption Society: How many garbage we produce

Consumption Society: How many garbage we produce

Content Garbage volume in Russia Difficulties in processing Waste volumes in other countries How much garbage is one person throws out per year How to reduce the amount of garbage Experts: Nikita Zubkov – expert of the project “Waste of production and consumption” of the Bellona Ecological Legal Center Karina Sidun-Head of the Marketing Department of LLC PKF “Petro-Vast” Sergey Malikov-ecologist, member of the Expert Council at the Committee of the Federation Council on Agrarian and Revolutionary Policy and Nature Management Natalya Sokolova-ecologist, chairman of the board of ANO “Equid Popright”, member of the government subcommission for chemical security, head of the Ecology and Environmental Protection section at the Council of the Federation Council for Agrarian-Revolutionary Policy and Nature Management Garbage volume in Russia Several years ago, almost no one thought about where the remains of yesterday’s food, batteries, bags, plastic and glass bottles.

We saw only a visiting garbage truck, which devastates containers and takes garbage somewhere.

This is natural, because the problems are much easier to perceive when they do not loom before their eyes.

However, waste is our common problem.

Garbage appears in life with the direct participation of everyone.

To realize the scale, we will present a few numbers.

In 2019, the population of our country left about 346 million cubic meters (or 65 million tons) of waste.

If you take into account all the cities of Russia, then Moscow generates most of all garbage.

26.

8 million cubic meters were taken to landfills in 2019.

20.

4 million cubic meters set off from the suburbs to the training grounds and sorting.

The Moscow region accounts for 14% of all domestic garbage in the country.

For example, during the summer day, residents of only two districts of Moscow (northern and central) produce 4–7 tons of plastic.

The volume of receipt of this fraction depends on the air temperature.

In winter, the indicator decreases.

In second place in volume – glass.

Sorting centers take about 6-7 tons daily.

On holidays (New Year and March 8), numbers are increasing.

In third place is the film.

2-3 tons every day falls on the sort.

Green economy How to sort garbage at home.

Brief instruction Difficulties in processing It is easy to blame citizens of excessive consumption, but it is already difficult for us to imagine the delivery of food from your favorite restaurant not in plastic containers.

All this is devastated and overnight enters the garbage bucket, which must be taken out of the house daily.

Food waste occupies the main part in the total mass – 30%, while paper and cardboard – 21%, plastic – 10%, glass – 7%, metals – 4%.

The remaining 28% made the category “Other”.

At the same time, almost 48 million tons of such waste went to landfills and a little more than 18 million tons went to sort.

With objects of sorting, too, not everything is smooth yet.

206 such enterprises work in Russia.

Their capacities are enough to sort 20 million tons.

That is, at present, only a third of all solid utilities (MSW) formed in Russia undergoes sorting.

The emergence of new centers will help to correct the situation.

The authorities want to build 360 such objects.

The remaining waste is sent to landfills, which are already now not copeing with incoming volumes.

At the end of September 2020, the Accounts Chamber of the Russian Federation reported that the situation with official training grounds is close to critical.

At the rate of growth of MSW volumes (1-2% per year) in 32 regions they will be filled by 2024, and in 17 – already in the following.

Which interferes with waste processors The low percentage of waste processing in Russia (7%) is primarily associated with the underdevelopment of the separate waste collection system.

Now processors are faced with three main problems: Lack of high -quality primary sorting of waste in Russia.

This complicates the allocation of useful fractions for processing and reduces the profitability of processing, since the supplied waste often contain impurities and food residues.

Lack of a clear organization of the collection and logistics of secondary material resources.

This reduces the interest of people to hand over, and processors – to pick up waste.

Economic instability of flows of different types of secondary raw materials.

This leads to an imbalance of supply and demand in the market both among suppliers of recyclables and its consumers.

Green economy Eco-sucking incentives: how to involve regions in a separate waste collection You can solve this problem, says Zubkov from the Bellona center.

Legislatively describe the procedure for handling waste from the use of goods and secondary material resources (VMR) as part of MSWs separately collected from the population.

Provide the treatment of such types of waste and resources for the regional operator on a common basis.

This should contribute to the widespread (house collection, reception centers, processing centers, etc.

) the introduction of separate garbage collection (separation into at least three streams: biodegradable, processed, non -processed).

“In order to trust the system of separate waste collection, the population must understand why to sort waste, how to do this and where they will go in the future.

To date, there is an urgent need to conduct explanatory work among the population and training in the younger generation, ”added Sidun from the PKF Petro-Vast.

Photo: Raksana Babaeva for DEEPLA Waste volume in other countries Some states spent decades to achieve success in disposal.

Germany succeeded most of all.

67% of waste from the total mass is sent for processing in this country, and only 2% is sent to landfills.

But not everyone has reached such indicators.

In the world, on average, 0.

74 kg of waste per person per day is produced.

At the same time, in different countries, the level of waste formation ranges from 0.

11 kg to 4.

54 kg per capita per day.

For example, inhabitants of the United States annually throw more than 250 million tons of waste.

This is one of the largest indicators in the world.

In Brazil, according to the latest estimates, the annual waste volume is approximately 80 thousand tons.

Most of them also fall into landfills.

In Norway, 450 kg of MSW per person per year is formed.

About 25% of waste is subjected to processing.

Since 2009, there is even a ban on the burial of food waste.

In Germany, 412 million tons of waste appear every year.

It takes into account not only household, but also industrial garbage.

Green economy How Germany shares waste during a pandemic In 2017, in Finland, one inhabitant accounted for 510 kg of waste.

The total amount of garbage is 2.

8 million tons.

The approach to disposal By the number of waste, our country does not occupy a leading place, given the territory.

But you need to focus not on volume, but on the approach to disposal.

Low income countries usually rely on open landfills.

93% of waste is reset in countries with a low income and only 2% in countries with a high income.

In countries with an income level above average, the highest percentage of burial at the landfill is 54%.

This indicator is reduced in countries with a high income level to 39%.

At the same time, in these countries, 35% of waste is sent for processing and composting, and 22% – for burning.

In Europe and East Asia, burning is most actively used – 18 and 24%, respectively.

The highest level of composting or combustion of waste in the countries of North America (USA, Canada) is 33%.

The smallest percentage of processing was noted in the countries of South Asia.

According to the report of the Accounts Chamber, the disposal level in Russia and other countries looks like this: Photo: Raksana Babaeva for DEEPLA How much garbage is one person throws out per year Analysts of the international audit-consulting network Finexpertiza calculated that one resident of the country on average produces 2.

4 cubic meters of garbage every year.

In their study, they noted the relationship between the standard of living in the region and the amount of garbage.

The higher it is, the more waste in the subject.

But among the regions there are also leaders in the production of MSW per capita.

The Republic of Buryatia became an absolute champion.

One person produces 7.

8 cubic meters of garbage.

The residents of Chechnya leave behind the least of all garbage.

Only 0.

49 cubic meters per person are formed there per year.

In second place is Ingushetia (0.

71 cubic meters).

How to reduce the amount of garbage “Purely not where they clean, but where they do not litter.

” A banal phrase, but it does not lose relevance.

During the year, large factories will not appear in the country, and a modern park with flowering Sakura will suddenly not be built on the site of the former landfill.

Green economy Parks at the site of landfills: examples of waste work from around the world The socio-economic system will not change in the brighter future, but our environmental culture may change.

To do this, you can try to gradually proceed to the principles of Zero Waste or Low Impact.

Zero Waste The principles of such a lifestyle were announced in 2013, when a book called “House without waste was released: a complete guide to simplifying life by reducing the amount of waste.

” It was written by an environmental activist and motivational speaker Bea Johnson.

According to the author, to increase the environmental culture, people need to choose one of five principles for themselves and follow it.

What is this about? Refuse (refuse).

Reduce (reduce).

Reuse (re -use).

Recycle (process).

ROT (compost).

Refuse The writer advises readers to abandon things that are not needed in life.

For example, you can find a replacement for disposable coffee glasses, dishes and straws.

Still people need to learn how to say no when they are offered gift bags, free coupons, magazines and leaflets.

Photo: Raksana Babaeva for DEEPLA Reduce Bea Johnson is sure that citizens buy more than they really need.

The activist advises to think several times before buying a thing.

Reuse When you decide to throw something away and buy new, ask yourself, can you find a way to re-use or repair this thing.

If the phone or laptop broke, instead of buying a new one, first look for repair options, Johnson writes.

The same rule applies to clothes.

Recycle.

One of the most common ways to reduce waste is processing.

But it is inaccessible or not used actively everywhere.

Rot.

This method is very popular among summer residents and agricultural enterprises.

Any organic waste can be turned into compost, and then used as fertilizers.

Low Impact The creator of this movement is an activist and author of the Sustainably Vegan Immi Lucas YouTube channel.

She believes that it is necessary to pay attention not only to the packaging of the goods, but also to the “invisible” trace.

What you need to know about the product? Which country was he brought from? Are environmental standards taken into account when creating? Was it ethical production in relation to people and animals? What is the packaging of the goods and was it processed? Is there the same product on the market, but without packaging? According to IMMI Lucas, the eco of the investigation is no less important than the packaging itself.

We will analyze the example.

A person who lives according to the principles of Zero Waste goes to ordinary stores.

He takes bags with him and calmly folds apples in them.

He is little interested in where this fruit was brought from.

A person who lives according to the principles of Low Impact will prefer to buy apples from a grandmother.

He is sure that she raised them by all environmental and ethical standards.

And the environmental impact was minimal during transportation.

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