"More than 90% of global brains live in conditions, much worse than in Russia"
Sergey Belousov-a graduate of the Moscow Physics and Technical Institute (MIPT).
The founder and CEO of Acronis.
Chairman of the board of directors of Parallels.
Head of the Board of Trustees of the Russian Quantum Center, Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Novosibirsk State University (NSU).
Now in Russia, a salary of $ 1 thousand again began to be considered good, and not all quality specialists left.
With this cost and accessibility of resources, it is easy to create innovations.
The goal for inventions is cunning, and inventions are innovations.
The coolest technological companies in Russia were created in the 1990s and 2000s-there were no development and investment institutions, but there were talented people formed by Soviet science and education.
And therefore, today it is necessary to invest in the development of talents that will create tomorrow innovation and prepare new talents.
How to do it? I propose to choose 11 directions in three groups, which in the next 10–25 years will greatly grow by money.
The first group is computer sciences: Cybersecurity.
AI and machine learning.
Programming as a science.
Robotics and autonomous engineering.
The second group is a fundamental physics with immediate applied potential: New and “smart” materials.
The third group is a technological transformation of human activity: Digital health.
Digital technologies in business and management.
Technology in art and design.
Technology in public administration.
In all 11 areas, Russia has good positions that can be strengthened.
Only a number of specific actions are needed.
For example, choose ten strong universities and create 30 scientific groups in each.
Such universities should have independent scientific councils with invited world leaders in their fields.
This is not required for this.
The main interest of participants in such advice is not in money, but just in prestige and access to talents.
The cost of one such group, for example, in computer sciences is $ 300-500 thousand per year.
This amount includes the training of candidates and doctors of science, their international certification, participation in business trips, collaborations and forums.
300 groups will cost $ 90-150 million per year.
Having added administrative support and marketing expenses here, we get $ 150–250 million per year – throughout the country! Even in ten years, this is less than declared investments, for example, in Skolkovo alone.
At the same time, the work of such groups in the declared areas activates the entire region: we can expect another 300-600 groups in competing universities financed from other sources – these are state programs, private investments, cooperation with industry, international financing, direct earnings in other ways.
Do not underestimate the competitive spirit and creativity of talented people even in conditions of a shortage of funds.
Universities as a business You need to choose ten good state universities and motivate them to reorganize to achieve maximum efficiency, perhaps forgetting about some traditions and regalia.
Even a state university can be controlled as a business – with specific short -term, medium -term and long -term goals.
It seems to me that you can change the selection strategy of at least administrative personnel to such universities.
It is not necessary to hire people with a degree or famous academicians to administrative positions.
These should be specialists who will close a specific functional direction, solve the problem necessary to the university.
That is how Billy Bin, the manager of the Osland Atletics baseball team, selected people.
Such a reorganization led the team to victory, and later, based on this story, a book was written and the film was shot.
In the past five years, some Russian universities are gradually raising in world ratings.
But there should be much more.
Ratings are not an absolute, but very important indicator.
Tens of world -class universities are needed for innovation to innovation The purposeful rise of the corporate spirit affects the success of the organization, especially in those areas where innovation is needed.
And innovation is almost always a product of collective labor.
David Logan in Tribal LEADERSHIP describes how the success of the team is determined by the level of corporate culture.
Ratings are not an absolute, but very important indicator.
Tens of world -class universities are needed for innovation to innovation According to the principle of optimism formulated by David Deutch, “all the evil is due to the lack of knowledge.
” So, obtaining new knowledge is always a positive factor and a source of maximum satisfaction for a person! In this sense, universities should be especially simply with motivation – knowledge and technologies are created here, thanks to which humanity is moving forward.
At the same time, the situation with a shortage of funds and other difficulties allows you to better take into account the cultural specifics of Russia.
In Russia, centralized control is the most important management element.
It allows you to introduce a mobilization and redistribution tactics especially effective in any crisis – this is well written in the “Russian Management model” Alexander Prokhorov.
The rector of the centralized university should not be appointed a distant ministry or elected by a team.
This must be done by the prerogative of the supervisory board – compact and involved in detail.
And the rector must report before this supervisory board.
In turn, the rector must be able to appoint and dismiss Deanov and other employees in administrative positions – just as the head of any major company does.
New school Deficiency of funds is an ideal moment to introduce advanced technologies in education.
Here are some approaches.
In modern digital systems, the teacher sees not only the results of the control or homework, but also as the student solved problems, interacted with the educational platform, materials, as he collected data.
Using this information, the teacher can intervene in the educational process and help the student before the formal completion of the educational module.
Pupils receive a personal interactive educational track, which will allow them to monitor their own “educational form” in real time, depending on progress and success.
If the student was not engaged in enough, the rating drops him and the estimated probability of passing the exam is reduced, and he sees it in real time.
The desired statistics are open – a competitive element and monitoring of the progress of other students will be an additional incentive for studying.
Discrete control is replaced by continuous, dynamic and automated.
This is a formative assessment tested by modern education.
The introduction of adaptive components in education.
Everyone remembers that the textbook has ordinary tasks and tasks with an asterisk that give the best students.
Inteligencia artificial in combination with the teacher will allow this idea to bring this idea to prepare an individual textbook and a task, depending on the level of the student.
This will allow teachers to inspire students and work with each on the basis of its specific learning path.
The use of new platforms allows you to introduce social networks in education in training.
In such an environment, people learn teamwork, create joint projects, and socially interact.
Here they can evaluate each other’s projects – such a mutual review removes part of the load from the teachers.
The formation system with a focus for mutual review and processes instead of static facts (for example, pogil) is well tested.
It is believed that some things cannot be trained without an experimental component requiring the presence of a student.
The development of virtual technologies helps schools that cannot afford to conduct experiments.
Virtual experiments will allow a much larger number of people to gain access to the experimental base in chemistry, physics, medicine and other natural areas.
Similar startups are already in Russia – for example, Mel.
Where an automated independent, adaptive, remote and virtual approach is not enough, you can use a mixed approach to education – part of the classes several times a year in the classroom to maintain personal communication and socialization.
The state can certify and financially support such initiatives, which will allow us to use new solutions in schools and universities, as well as create an opportunity for exporting educational technologies.
The volume of the world market for mobile and electronic education is over $ 100 billion and continues to grow, so this is a wonderful area for innovation.
Education and science marketing Talented people are always in motion, so brain leak is a natural process.
If part of the brains leave, you can bring brains from other countries to their place.
First – study.
And on this you can earn both directly and indirectly, because students are the same tourists.
Then one of them will remain to work, engage in science and teach.
And even from those who leave will be beneficial.
More than 90% of world brains live in much worst than in Russia, and there are plenty of talents among these brains.
They can and should be used in order to make Russian science and education better.
This will require the following.
Teaching in English and improving the knowledge of the language by teachers and students in general.
This will help not only Russian science and education, but also to Russian startups and investors to enter the global market.
The targeted marketing of Russian education and science in the world market, including not only developed countries.
Science and education – product, it must be exported.
This not only brings money, but also makes the product itself more competitive.
MIPTs should not compete with Moscow State University, but with Munich or Melbourne universities.
Collaborations and campuses abroad for maximum coverage of foreign students.
Creation of campus of foreign universities in Russia.
The exchange should be bilateral – if China wants to open a branch in Moscow, then you need to allow this.
Remote and adaptive training and certification of foreign students.
There are already such projects in Russia, for example, STEPIK.
These actions will allow Russian science and education to enter the international market, which is now estimated at more than $ 5 trillion, and by 2030 it will grow to $ 10 trillion.
If funds for development are not enough, you can look for investments or earn them, as is done, for example, Australia or New Zealand.
Earn on knowledge It is necessary to create conditions under which in science and education you can earn a private business.
Young startups could create educational applications, platforms and institutions, and not just engage in blockchain.
To do this, you need a standard package of simple measures, such as a clear state regulation of the market, simplified certification of private universities and schools (especially the scientific and technological profile), partial privatization of schools and universities, a grant system for supporting educational startups, benefits for educational projects, marketing-initiatives (to To get rid of the stigma “sharashki”, which was fixed at private universities in the 1990s).
This applies to specialized universities, special schools and vnovezov systems of education and certification of students.
Investment in scientific and educational startups may turn out to be a more effective investment of budget funds than, for example, the development of agriculture In Soviet times, important areas in which people could find themselves were science and education.
Now is a great moment to send the talents and energy of entrepreneurs to this area again.
Investment in scientific and educational startups may turn out to be a more effective investment of budget funds than, for example, the development of agriculture.
The main thing is that it is clear that in this area you can earn money and work prestigiously.
The cost of a teacher or scientist/teacher for the university is relatively small, and good education and world -class science are expensive.
New specialists Over the past ten years, a huge number of instruments of commercialization and development of innovations have been created in Russia: business incubators, accelerators, SEZ, investment funds and business angels, giving state-owned stateganization grants, business parks, clubs and mentor programs, regular conferences and forums.
This means that there were enough specialists.
Now all these specialists and organizations must somehow be directed or lured into universities.
This is a great opportunity to attach strength.
Senior students, young candidates of sciences, postdrods can do good science, but at the same time they want to be able to earn money.
For the university, startup supervision can be one of the main sources of income.
The university can and should start earning on the talents that it produces.
In this case, employees and students will not be forced to leave to earn.
An example of a university, where such a system is already functioning and developing, can be MIPT.
There is a Fizteh-Union, the Phystech Ventures venture fund and other funds, incubators, accelerators, Fiztehpark, where new companies can start work.
Competitions, hackathons, conferences, etc.
are held here.
Innovation economy How to keep up with Russia’s engineering behind the locomotive of innovation Popularization of science Many people want to realize themselves, want fame, but cannot or do not want to do this in politics or on television.
The energy of these people should be directed to the creation of popular science films, cartoons and show for adults and children, and popular media.
It is necessary to attract celebrities to the popularization of science.
Let, for example, the rapper Face talks about quantum mechanics, and the coin – about microbiology.
You can create new types of celebrities – scientific.
Now in Russia there are no more than a dozen such people, and they need an order of magnitude more.
A popular lecturer must be the same level of fame with the pop singer.
The organization of specialized awards and awards, holding regular competitions, creating traditions of scientific and educational charity are also needed.
In Butan, it is customary to plant a tree for every holiday.
As a result, forests have increased over the past 40 years and a half times.
Such traditions should be in Russia – give books, educational courses, campaigns to museums.
The popularizers of science and education have a high level of motivation.
It is enough for them to provide space for implementation in the form of funds aimed at popularizing science, in the form of grant programs and tax benefits for popular projects and for those people and organizations that invest in these programs.
Give and invest All over the world, rich people or companies spend money on beautiful offices, yachts, football clubs, houses, planes, take care of the inheritance for the family and invest in the global business development.
But in Russia now all these opportunities are limited by objective and subjective sanctions.
It is believed that it is good for the soul to help orphans and sick, hospitals, temples, museums, etc.
Perhaps it is more useful for investment in the future to help scientific and educational institutions – access to the best schools and universities is much more useful for offspring than inheritance! The unprepared people could invest in science and education and earn on this.
This is real and good for reputation.
Especially if you earn at the best universities, on the increase in world -class talents and on cool research.
The university can and should start earning on the talents that it produces.
In this case, employees and students will not be forced to leave in order to earn When John Stanford donated money to create a university in 1884, he was a successful, but ambiguous politician and businessman.
After 135 years, no one remembers his political achievements, success in business or his complex reputation, but Stanford University is remembered and known around the world.
Ultimately, a good university is for centuries.
And if someone from the top management will set an example right now, this process-investing in private universities-can be launched this year.
And there are examples of creating a successful technological university and ecosystem from scratch, with small investments and in a short time in modern Russia – for example, Innopolis and a successful ecosystem surrounding it.
In just seven and a few years, he entered the list of best computer sciences!
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