Form for content: how the packaging of products changes and why

Form for content: how the packaging of products changes and why

Content How the packaging has changed The main myths about each material Features of the processing of tetrapak, glass, paper and polymer waste How companies change production How buyers perceive packaging How consumers can affect the situation Experts: Sergey Chernikov – Associate Professor of the Faculty of Economics RUDN; Sergey Kolesnikov – co -owner and managing partner of the Technonikol Corporation; Elena Grebennik – head of the external communications of the Russian manufacturer of craft packaging DOECO; Mikhail Katseman-Director for Science and Development of the Polyplastic Scientific and Production Enterprise.

How the packaging has changed Supermarkets and shops of shopping centers are filled with goods for every taste and color.

There is no more deficiency, and the mention of it remains only in the stories of our parents and books on history.

In the conditions of such acute competition, the packaging is designed not only to maintain the quality of products, but also to attract the attention of customers.

But it was not always so.

The first packaging appeared in antiquity.

Mostly natural storage items were used: from leaves and clay to the skins of animals.

Later in ancient Rome, barrels appeared in which products were transported over long distances.

But a real breakthrough occurred at the beginning of the 19th century.

Then the French inventor Nicolas UPper invited the world to preserve products in glass containers.

At the same time, but already in England, scientist Peter Durand urged to use tin banks as packaging.

They are lighter and stronger.

They had more chances to get to the destination intact and safe.

At the beginning of the 20th century, the first plastic packaging appeared.

It was actively used only during the Second World War.

Medicines, weapons and food were packaged in it.

From 1930 to 1940, the US authorities decided to invest in the development of industrial infrastructure.

It is this period that is considered the key in the development of new synthetic materials: PVC, nylon, polystyrene, polyethylene, Teflon.

Polyethylene was first used to shield cables.

But he “grew” his original purpose and was transformed into garbage bags, milk containers and packaging films.

In the 1960s, it was possible to create an aluminum jar of one piece of metal.

This prompted manufacturers to start developing tear -off covers.

In 1977, polyethyleneterftalate appeared.

Drinks were most often poured from this material.

The appearance of polypropylene, polyester and vinyl alcohol “reformatted” the market.

With metal and glass containers, manufacturers began to massively switch to plastic.

Now companies use other methods of packaging products.

One of these technologies is Tetra Pak.

She is used in more than 170 countries.

The developers do not stop there.

Studies are underway to create even more effective and environmentally friendly types of packaging.

Green economy Whiskey in paper and an edible container: five types of alternative packaging The main myths about each material Today in Russia it is customary to demonize plastic packaging.

But myths are enveloped not only in plastic.

Now we will put everything on the shelves.

“Plastic packaging is unambiguous evil” Despite the complexity of processing, disposable and stretch and stretchs increase the performance of logistics complexes and retail chains by 25-30%.

Disposable multi -layer films in the package save products 20% longer without the addition of preservatives, since the film has the properties of a molecular barrier that prevents water and oxygen.

“Polymer packaging, especially multilayer and functional, retains millions of tons of agricultural products and food in stores and refrigerators.

If it is banned, then hunger, of course, will not come, but you will have to produce 20–25% more food, and unsuitable products will be thrown 10-15% more often.

This, in turn, will provoke additional problems of disposal of now food waste, ”explained Katseman from the Polyplastic NPP.

Green economy Polymer is waiting for strict measures: what new materials will replace plastic “Natural” paper bags are better than plastic ” The production of paper packages requires four times more energy and three times more water consumption, creates 70% more air pollution and 50% more water pollution than the production of plastic ones.

And with secondary processing, a one -time paper package requires 91% more energy than a plastic one.

“Glass does less harm to nature” In fact, if you do not send glass for processing, then it will decompose from 1 thousand to 1 million years.

When it enters the soil, it is corroded.

Highlighting a large amount of alkali, glass changes the chemical balance of groundwater and soil.

It also leads to the death of plants.

“The environmental friendliness of the packaging is equal to the volume of collected packaging waste” This is not true.

In this regard, it is important to consider all the stages and elements of the life cycle of packaging (from production to processing), including its carbon trace.

This is the volume of CO2 emissions that occurs in the production of packaging, the roslice of the product and transportation.

In addition, if we talk about the impact on the climate of the final products, then, for example, the production of milk on packaging will have less than 5% of the total carbon trace.

Green economy Carbon mark: that everyone should know about him Features of the processing of tetrapak, glass, paper, aluminum and polymer waste Any material is unique in its own way, and each has its own method of disposal.

For example, multiple packaging tetrapak is also completely processed.

Seven companies are engaged in the production of this type of package.

Together they create 200 thousand tons of products per year.

About 15 thousand tons are sent for processing from the total number.

The main method of processing is a booting in a paper factory producing paper and corrugations.

As a result, they receive a valuable recycle: cellulose and polyalumin.

Today, Tetra Pak packaging is processed at enterprises in Lipetsk, Nizhny Novgorod, Veliky Novgorod, Perm and Tambov.

Moreover, processors report underloaded capacities.

The main reason for this is a low level of development of separate collection for all types of packaging.

Green economy What is tetrapak and how to use it correctly If we talk about polymer waste, then in the country they are accumulated annually, according to Technonikol, up to 1 million tons.

Relying 1 ton of polymers requires an average of 10% of energy and water from the cost of primary production.

Secondary plastic is up to 90% for many enterprises.

Add almost an unlimited number of processing cycles.

As a result, polymers are not only safe, but also profitable material.

“In 2020, we launched a recycling plant in Khabarovsk polymers worth 171 million rubles.

One line is capable of providing up to 10 thousand tons of secondary polymers annually, ”Kolesnikov from Technonikol explains.

– Among them is polystyrene and polystyrene foam, for, for example, the packaging of most food products consists.

The obtained polymer granules will be used in the manufacture of new products.

It is planned that the plant will be released at full capacity in 2024.

” As for the PET but (plastic bottles with drinks), they can be completely processed and made from used new bottles for drinks.

The technology is called Bottle-to-Bottle (“bottle in a bottle”), its feature is the complete identity of the quality characteristics of the products obtained and the primary PET rawry of food purposes.

In the world, this technology is widely used, in Russia, the Plastrus Plastmass Plastmass process is engaged in the production of restored granulatory grain.

So far, this is the only factory in the country, but he often experiences problems with raw materials-empty PET boots.

The capacity of the market of secondary granules made of Russian -made plastic is approximately 35–40 billion rubles.

With paper and cardboard packaging, things are completely different.

In Europe, the processing level of these materials reached 85.


In Russia, waste paper processors encountered a shortage of raw materials.

The country’s population is characterized by small consumption of pulp and paper products.

For example, the average per capita consumption of pulp and paper products for 2019 in Russia-50 kg, in the USA-211 kg, in Germany-241 kg.

Glass packaging is also subject to one hundred percent processing.

In Russia, manufacturers annually create 15–20 million tons of glass of different types.

Not everything falls on re -melting, but 5-7 million tons.

With the processing of aluminum, problems also do not arise.

The life cycle of an aluminum can (from the moment of sale to the next appearance on the counter) is 60 days.

More than 600 thousand tons of aluminum scrap are collected and processed annually in Russia.

About 35% of the package is re -processed.

The European Union has so far has reached the maximum level of secondary processing of this type of metal.

According to the aluminum association, in the car industry and construction it is 90–95%, in the production of aluminum cans – 74%, and in general in the package – 60%.

Green economy Consumption society: how much garbage do we produce How companies change production By 2025, Pepsico will reduce the use of the share of primary plastic in the production of packaging packages.

In addition, the manufacturer changes packaging in other categories.

For example, in 2020, the Imunel brand refused to use plastic covers in the package of the main line, which will reduce the volume of plastic by 150 tons per year.

And the Agusha brand refused to use plastic tubes in the production of juices, fruit drinks and compotes in packages of 500 ml.

Refusal of tubes will allow you to use 12.

5 tons less than plastic annually.

The transformation of packs of Lay’s chips allowed to reduce the amount of foil in the production of packaging.

Green economy Pepsico will take up “sustainable agriculture” and the support of farmers McDonald’s combined his strength with Starbucks.

Two large American brands decided to create compostable and fully processed coffee glasses.

Heinz, Danone, Lego and Nestlé shared similar plans.

Car corporations have long been using secondary raw materials to create vehicles.

For example, the hood and doors of the new Nissan Rogue crossover are made of processed aluminum.

This made it possible to reduce the weight of the machine and fuel consumption.

Lush has achieved special successes.

She first began the path to environmentally friendly packaging.

She not only packs products in Post-Consumer plastic, but also offers to return empty jars to the store and receive gifts for this.

Bars are used five times, after which they “turn” into baskets for purchases.

Packaging manufacturers and manufacturers of packaging are not far behind.

Tetra Pak is constantly working on improving its solutions both on the lines of the roser and the composition and form of packaging.

For example, the effectiveness of the use of resources at all stages of the life cycle (saving water, electricity, fuel) is increased, which as a result reduces the climatic trace of the packaging.

“A striking example is the Tetra Brik Edge packaging solution with a beveled top: such a modification allows you to increase the useful space during the transportation of products by reducing the space used by the lid.

In addition, already now in the Tetra Pak packaging more than 70% of renewable resources – certified FSC (forest trusitive council) of forests serve as raw materials, ”Tetra Pak explained.

Designers also connected to this issue.

The Swedish designer studio Tomorrow Machine is surprised by its innovative solutions.

Together with Innventia, it was possible to develop a self -expanding package of fully biodegradable material.

During transportation, he is compressed and thus saves a place.

And when pouring hot water, the mechano-active material reacts to heat and is transformed from a compressed package into a serving bowl.

How buyers perceive packaging In the modern world, packaging does not just protect the product until it is with the buyer.

This is also one of the key tools of marketing impact, which is difficult to resist, according to the comb from DOECO.

The buyer began to carefully study the packaging At the same time, the decision -making time at the shelf decreased to 5 seconds.

The most spectacular packaging is the first in the hands of the buyer.

A noticeable design helps to stand out and rebuild from competitors.

Correct packaging forms a certain sensation, associative series, perception of the brand, that is, the emotion that the manufacturer from his buyer wants to call.

For the buyer, storitelling has become important Products of products increasingly began to brand crafting packaging and place important and useful information for the buyer: to talk about the strengths of their product, brand history, seasonal products, chef, social and environmental initiatives of the company, sustainable development and use of eco-packing.

More often pay attention to the reliability of packaging Properly selected packaging preserves both the product and the reputation of the brand.

This is especially noticeable in the cooking of large network retailers, which in the pandemic launched the delivery of finished dishes from their stores.

Modern packaging even preserves the author’s kitchen almost like on a plate in a restaurant.

Green economy How the choice of packaging of goods affects the waste processing system How consumers can affect the situation You need to fight not with packaging, but with those problems that cause its unreasonable use.

All experts surveyed converge in this opinion.

One of the methods of improving the situation is processing, but so far everything rests in the absence of opportunities for competent waste collection.

According to public opinion polls, up to 66% of Russians are ready to sort garbage at home in order to subsequently send it for processing, and 16% are already doing this.

Those who so far have difficulties with separate collection of garbage can vote with a ruble.

In the supermarket, you can choose products in a more environmentally friendly packaging or come with your bags to buy cheered vegetables and fruits.

With such small steps you can come to a pure and environmentally friendly future.


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