"Freaking" for bones: how in Tomsk create innovative implants
This material continues the cycle about laboratories, research, developments and projects of regional universities from the list “Priority 2030”.
The first material about the project of Saratov scientists in managing the functions of sleep can be read here.
The creation of artificial parts of the body is a long -standing dream of mankind.
Today it turns into reality.
At the efforts of scientists, implants are constantly being improved.
Engineers give products in different properties: help them “deceive” immunity, it is better to take root in the human body, serve longer.
And sometimes they are forced to “dissolve” without a residue after the work performed.
In the Tomsk Polytechnic University (TPU), several scientific groups work in this direction.
The development of scientists can save people from pain and return to a full life.
Engineering developments have become an integral part of modern medicine.
Thanks to them, doctors received the opportunity to successfully implant artificial parts of the body.
Innovative implants are projects in the field of health engineering that TPU scientists implement with the support of the Federal Priority 2030 program.
Implantology, as in any field of life, has its own so -called “classic of the genre.
” The destroyed bone or its part can replace the metal implant.
For their production, the alloy of titanium, vanadia or zirconium is most often used.
Everything would be fine if it were not for one significant “but”: there is always a danger that immunity will begin to rebel against the implant and the body will reject a foreign body.
The task of scientists is to reduce this risk.
The team of the scientific and educational center B.
Weinberg TPU, under the leadership of Sergei Tverdokhlebov, found a way to “deceive” the body.
Scientists have developed several technologies and equipment for the formation of calcium-phosphate coatings on the surface of the implant.
The calculation is as follows: calcium and phosphorus form the basis of bone tissue – if the implant is covered with a layer of these elements, the body takes it as “its own”.
Tomsk scientists were able to improve biocompatibility and coronary stents, this time by applying a multi -layer coating of titanium oxinitrides and a bioresorbent composite layer with nanoparticles, the modification technology of which was proposed by TPU chemists.
Samples of artificial vessels made in TPU (photo: TPU) Coatings as a way of disguise Implants with bioactive coatings are widely used in regenerative medicine.
One of these developments of Tomsk polytechnics is steel knitting needles that are implanted into the tubular bone and are used as a “conductor” that helps to form new bone tissue.
A team of scientists, led by candidate of technical sciences, Evgeny Bolbasov, has developed a technology for the manufacture of such implants and applying composite coatings based on fluorogrue plastics with piezoelectric properties.
The latter are close in composition and physical characteristics to real bone tissue, which allows them to be used to treat childhood orthopedic diseases caused by hereditary pathologies.
Evgeny Bolbasov, researcher at the laboratory of plasma hybrid systems of TPU: “The specifics of this coating is also that it makes bone marrow stem cells that are able to divide into various types of cells,“ retrained ”into bone material.
As a result, the new bone tissue begins to increase intensively around the implant.
After the successful completion of the regeneration process, the spoke is removed.
” Implants with various bioactive coatings are introduced into medical practice.
Employees of the famous center of orthopedics named after Academician Ilizarov (Kurgan), who specializes in the correction of congenital body deformations, treated more than 300 patients.
Innovative medical products developed by Tomsk scientists help reduce the deadlines for limbs almost doubled.
Another successful experience in applying development is veterinary medicine, and more specifically – the restoration of limbs in animals.
Implant for traumatology made in the Tomsk Polytechnic (photo: TPU) Depot for molecules Another area of work in the field of modification of coatings is synthesizing on the surface of titanium implants of titanium dioxide.
It is conducted by scientists of the research school of chemical and Biomedical technologies of the Tomsk Polytechnic together with colleagues from Germany and the USA.
Calcium-phosphate coatings, identical in their chemical composition of the human bone, are applied to nanotubes.
Roman Surmenev, Director of the Research Center “Physical Material Science and Composite Materials” TPU: “Nanot tubes due to the high values of the specific surface area are a kind of“ depot ”to load various bioactive substances and molecules, which can significantly increase the bioactivity of the implant surface.
Thus, they improve the survival of bone implants.
In addition, medicinal substances loaded into nanotubes will enter the patient’s body, helping him to fight with certain diseases.
” Samples of smart composite biomaterials synthesized in TPU (photo: TPU) Bone, ceramics, friendship Application of bioactive coatings is not the only option to “make” the body with an implant.
There are products that have better biocompatibility compared to their analogues from metals and alloys based on titanium and nickel.
For example, implants made of biomedum ceramics.
They do not need buffer layers for “survival” in the body and have minimal side effects.
Ceramic implants are widely used in orthopedics and dentistry.
Tomsk polytechnics develop new technologies for individual implants based on zirconium nanokeriramics, as well as the improvement of existing technologies for the order of the industrial partner-the high-tech company “My ceramic-implant”, a resident of the Tomsk Special Economic Zone.
Oleg Khasanov, Director of the Scientific and Educational Innovation Center “Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology” TPU: “The competitive advantages of our technologies of ceramic implants are that the manufacture of individual products becomes more economical.
In the 1990–2000s, our scientific group was developed, patented and introduced into the production of forming ceramic nanoporos into functional products of a given form using ultrasound and collector pressing methods.
Today we use them to create medical ceramic implants of various purposes.
” Among the relevant developments are implants for a ram joint in the ankle, dental components.
The results are required to fulfill orders of both Russian and foreign medical centers and firms.
Studies of the structure of new materials in TPU are carried out on a translucent electronic microscope of ultra -high resolution (photo: TPU) Construction forests to help Not always for the “repair” of the bone you need an implant.
In some cases, when it comes to minor loads on the bone, you can use Skaffold (from English – “Building Forests”).
The material for them is polymers and composites – substances consisting of two or more components with various physical and chemical properties.
Their combination allows you to obtain materials with improved characteristics that are not characteristic of each of the initial components.
Scaffolds are obtained by electroforming or in other ways.
They imitate the structure of the extracellular matrix of bone tissues, contain healing drugs and completely disappear when the bone fuses.
“Development of various types of spacesuits is world practice.
Our scientists have applied polyoxycanoats – biodegradable polymers that are produced by bacteria.
The material is absolutely non -toxic.
After the formation of new bone tissues and the dissolution of Skaffold, its decay products are excreted from the body without any side effects, ”Professor Roman Surmenev emphasizes.
Key trends Implantology does not stand still, turning into reality that which has already relatively recently seemed a phenomenon of the future.
There are trends here.
New materials The metals and their alloys that have become traditional for implantology are gradually replaced by ceramics, polymers and composites.
Piezomaterials are another promising direction.
Their unique property is the ability to produce a small electric charge as a result of mechanical deformation or load.
It allows you to accelerate healing with bone fractures.
The essence of the process is that the electric charge affects bone cells, primarily on osteoblasts and osteoclasts that are involved in the healing and at the same time repel bacteria, that is, can provide antibacterial properties of the surface.
This charge is generated under the influence of the load on piezoelectric element introduced into a bone defect.
Polyoxiacanoats – a class of biodegradable polymers with whom TPU scientists work are piezoelectrics.
But this is not the limit for modern science.
Sergey Tverdokhlebov, Associate Professor of the Scientific and Educational Center B.
Weinberg: “Today there has been a tendency to transition to the area of sensitive autonomous Smart materials.
They are able to independently adjust their properties and have a therapeutic effect in response to changes in the environment or biological processes.
To do this, a sensor is introduced into the porous structure of the implant, which controls the condition of the body using an internal or external interface.
Predicting the possible consequences, it gives a command, and drugs or medicinal substances necessary for stabilizing the situation are released from the implant.
In particular, our scientific group is now engaged in the development of a multifunctional hybrid chip in the framework of Priority 2030.
Application of additive technologies They allow you to get a product of any shape, geometry and size according to a computer model.
Additative technologies are a voluminous or three -dimensional seal.
The 3D printer layer behind the layer creates a voluminous object, a real copy of the computer model.
Materials can be used by various, no exception – traditional titaniums, its alloys with aluminum, vanadium, niobium, zirconium, as well as polymers and composites, traditional for creating bone implants.
Total digitalization and personalization Innovative materials and technologies allow implants directly for each particular patient, taking into account his anatomy, genetics, age, gender characteristics.
There is also a clearly outlined tendency to reduce time from idea to introducing materials into medicine.
These are actively introducing technologies that in the foreseeable future will enter the usual practice.
“Implantology and science in general in recent years have been developing very rapidly.
I think that in 20-30 years we will be able to make an almost one hundred percent artificial replacement of blood vessels, ureter, bile ducts.
According to the characteristics of biocompatibility, they will not differ from the natural ones, ”says Evgeny Bolbasov.
– There is a chance that the problem of donor fabrics will be completely solved.
Over time, we will learn how to replace part of the affected kidney, create equivalents to large functional fabrics.
In the West, most likely, this will happen faster.
But only because they started earlier.
However, a breakthrough is not excluded in Russia: in our country, there are truly many creatively thinking scientists.
” Artificial vessels in TPU are done by electric spinning.
This is literally stretching the thinnest fibers from a polymer solution under the influence of an electric field (photo: TPU) Mehman Yusubov, Professor TPU, head of the Strategic Health Development Stava: “Our main goal is the development, creation, testing and broadcast of new personalized implants with given properties, as well as technologies and methodologies for their production and application in clinical practice.
Supporting the Priority 2030 program will allow us to go further.
Our plans are in our plans: the development of multifunctional hybrid biochips and piezogens introduced into the human body for the autonomous operation of various implanted devices, artificial tissue equivalents, composite and personified implants based on additive technologies and production technologies made from nanosome ceramics.
Thanks to participation in the Priority 2030, we will be able to, together with partners, conduct a full complex of technological, preclinical and clinical studies for each created product.
After that, we will be ready to transfer the technology along with the package of data obtained and the results of industrial partners for serial production of products.
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