Hibernation, Cryoson, Anabiosis: How and why immerse astronauts in a hibernation

Hibernation, Cryoson, Anabiosis: How and why immerse astronauts in a hibernation

Gibernation, Cryroson, Anabiosis – what condition is suitable for space flights Gibernation, cryonon and anabiosis are often considered synonyms: in all three cases, physiological processes slow down or completely stop.

The difference is how the body is immersed in a state and how it comes out of it.

Cryroson – cooling the body to extremely low temperatures (about minus 196 ℃) using liquid nitrogen.

So that the blood does not crystallize and does not destroy the vessels, it is replaced by non -freezing solutions.

Now in this way stem cells and donor blood are stored.

People and animals are frozen only after the death of the brain in private laboratories – for example, in Russia, Cryorus is engaged in this.

Living organisms do not subject to cryoponservation, since after it physiological processes are not restored.

People and animals are in a state of cryoponservation are in containers – Dewar (photo: kriorus.

ru) Some organisms fall into anbiosis – a condition in which the processes of vital activity completely stop.

For example, bacteria and mushrooms do this to survive at extremely low temperatures, low humidity and other adverse conditions.

Mammals do not fall into animation – their life processes slow down, but do not stop.

Gibernation, or hypobiosis, is a state of slowdown in physiological processes, when body temperature, respiratory and heart rate, metabolic activity decrease.

This happens with animals flowing into seasonal hibernation, for example, bears, marchings, bats.

After awakening, the function of their body is restored.

For flights in space, scientists are trying to immerse a person in the hibernation.

For animals, hibernation is a protective mechanism that helps survive during periods of lack of food (photo: depositphotos.

com) Why be astronauts to sleep in flight Saving resources and space In gibernation, astronauts do not need food in the usual form – the substances necessary for the body will be delivered through a life support system.

Due to the reduction of food and water reserves on board, the weight of the shuttle will decrease, and less fuel will be needed for the flight.

Space ships will become more compact, as astronauts will lie in sleep capsules without moving around the cabin.

The NASA agency calculated that for a crew of 4-6 people, the volume of a residential module will be reduced by six times, and the total mass of equipment, food and personal items by 52–68%.

Protection against radiation In space, a person receives 200 times more radiation per day than on Earth.

This level was recorded on the surface of the moon.

Due to the lack of atmosphere, the Earth’s satellite is not protected from radiation, so the indicators correspond to radiation in outer space.

This is equivalent to as if the astronaut daily 5-6 times passed the X -ray of the chest.

Increased radioactive radiation reduces life expectancy and can cause cancer.

In a state of gibbernation, the body is better protected from radiation than during wakefulness.

This was found out by scientists from Bologna University: they artificially introduced rats into hibernation and subjected them to X -ray radiation.

Analysis of organs showed that for animals in gibbernation, radiation was less dangerous compared to rats that were irradiated in a state of activity.

In addition to the physiological aspect, there is also technical.

According to Jason Derlet, an engineer and head of the NASA advanced concept, when all astronauts are in one part of the ship and do not move, it is easier and cheaper to protect against radiation than the entire shuttle.

Preservation of the mental health of the crew Flight into space is a difficult test for the human psyche.

Firstly, the crew members have long been with each other in a limited space, far from the family and friends.

The main psychological factors by which the astronauts are selected are high tolerance for others, non -conflict and the ability to work in a team.

But during the flight of the relationship between crew members, they can still deteriorate, which affects the success of the program.

Secondly, the astronauts disrupt circus rhythms that regulate periods of rest and activity.

But when the astronauts circle in orbit, “sunsets” or “sunrises” of the sun occur every 45 minutes, so the daily cycle is not divided for day and night, as on Earth.

Because of this, the body does not understand when you need to sleep, and when it is wakeful, a feeling of constant fatigue and irritability may arise.

If the astronauts are in a state of gibbernation, the negative consequences for their psyche associated with prolonged insulation and sleep disturbance will be avoided.

Evgeny Fesenko, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Deputy Director for Scientific Work, Head of the Laboratory of Cryobiology of the Institute of Biophysics of the Fitz PNCBI CENTS RAS: “In addition to saving oxygen, water, food to the potential advantages of gibbernation, you can include protection against cosmic radiation, as well as maintaining mental health during the flight.

” How scientists are trying to cause artificial gibernation Project “Technology of Artificial Hypobiosis” “Technologies of artificial hypobiosis” – a joint project of the Foundation for Promising Research and the Institute of Biophysics of the Cell of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

The purpose of the research was to create a drug that would immerse a person in artificial hibernation.

The project ended in 2018: scientists developed a complex pharmaceutical composition, which also includes Xenon’s inert gas.

The drug was tested on rabbits and rats, in which, after an injection by 7 ℃, the temperature dropped and metabolism slowed down by 70%.

After 10-15 hours, animals returned to a normal state.

According to the head of the laboratory of the mechanisms of the natural hypometabolic states of the IBC RAS, the candidate of the biological sciences of Nadezhda Zakharova, with the help of injections, it was possible to support rats in Gibernation for seven days.

After the drug passes preclinical toxicity tests, the development of technology for people will begin.

But one of the obstacles to widespread use can be the high price of xenon: the volume of gas necessary to maintain human anesthesia within two hours costs about $ 300.

Experiment with hydrogen sulfide In 2005, scientists from the Oncological Research Center in Seattle found that the hydrogen sulfide causes a state of hibernation in mice, in natural conditions not hibernated.

When animals absorbed gas, their metabolism gradually slowed down by 90%.

Also, after that, they could spend about seven hours, breathing with air with an oxygen content of 3-5% – usually in such conditions mice die after 20 minutes.

The normal concentration of oxygen in the atmosphere is 20%.

They tried to repeat the experiment on the sheep, but it turned out that it was impossible to immerse large animals with hydrogen sulfide.

Small doses on them do not act, and large ones are too toxic and lead to death.

Activation of certain neurons In 2020, two groups of scientists – from the Harvard Medical School and the University of Tsukub – independently discovered neurons in the mice that regulate the state of gibbernation.

Researchers acted on a certain part of the animal brain using chemicals.

After stimulation of neurons, the body temperature in mice decreased, metabolism slownhed down.

As scientists explained, even mammals who do not fall into seasonal hibernation have a protective mechanism of gibbernation.

It is activated with a lack of calories – the main feature of adverse conditions.

It was shown that the stimulation of certain neurons immerses mice into gibbernation even with a sufficient amount of food.

Similar experiments have not yet been conducted in public, but scientists believe that this discovery will become the basis for future research.

Temperature decrease In hibernation, animal body temperature decreases, so it is possible that it will also be possible to cause gibbernation in humans.

Short -term artificial hypothermia (temperature reduction) is already used in medicine, for example, during resuscitation when cardiac arrest.

A cooling solution is administered through a catheter into a vein, which circulates in the body and slows down metabolism.

This allows you to postpone the onset of irreversible damage to the brain caused by lack of oxygen.

Doctors have more time for resuscitation.

The main problem with hypothermia is to stop a violation of the functions of various organs caused by excessive hypothermia.

Technical aspects Scientists from the University in Munich, the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Aerospace Engineering company Spaceworks, independently of each other, presented projects of how the flight into space would look if they immerse the astronauts in the gibberna.

The concepts describe the device of sleep capsules, life support systems and other technical aspects.

Dreaming capsule.

Scientists from Munich University of Ludwig-Maximilian propose to develop special containers in which astronauts will be located during the gibbernation.

In capsules with a soft membrane, optimal conditions for hibernation will be maintained: muffled lighting, temperature below 10 ℃, high humidity.

To control the health status of each astronaut, sensors will be needed.

A similar project with single capsules was developed by a European space agency.

Concept of Capsules for Hibernation from the European Space Agency (Photo: ESA) Spaceworks offers a different approach: instead of single capsules, place crew members in a common cylindrical camera.

It will have to rotate, creating artificial gravity to maintain the tone of the musculoskeletal system and blood vessels.

Life supporting system.

SpaceWorks offers to develop a dropper system that will supply nutrients intravenously to astronauts.

The European Space Agency, on the contrary, believes that in Gibernation people will be able to survive, like animals flowing into natural hibernation, receive carbohydrates and proteins from accumulated adipose tissue.

Periodic awakening.

According to all three concepts, each astronaut will spend no more than a specific time period at a time in the gibernaut.

Awakening will be needed mainly in order to check health and, if necessary, heal.

During wakefulness, crew members will also be able to diversify the food, if there is a connection, chat with loved ones.

On -duty.

Perhaps the astronauts will wake up in turn, so that 1-2 people will always be awake.

They would observe the condition of the rest, check the accuracy of the route and the condition of the ship, were reported and connected with the ground.

But it is allowed that artificial intelligence can play this role.

Evgeny Fesenko: “In my opinion, when sending small crews up to ten people on an expedition within the solar system, Gibernation will be unclaimed.

When you need to increase the number of people transported up to 100, 1,000 or more people, Hibernation can become a good way out if the engineers by this time have reached the limits of the payload of the spacecraft (the payload is the mass of the equipment for which the shuttle is launched).

The technology of cryosaging a whole organism with its subsequent restoration would have led the prospects for space travel to a fundamentally different level, but it is still far from its development.

” Criticism of the idea of human gibbernation Some scientists believe that it will turn out only for a short time to immerse a person in a state similar to hibernation – for example, for surgery.

Neurobiologist Craig Heller from Stanford University claims that a long gibbernation of astronauts is impossible.

During the flight, astronauts are actively involved in sports, but their muscles still lose weight – according to the scientist, several months in a dream without movement will simply destroy the body.

Heller also believes that, unlike animals, a person is not able to adapt to a decrease in temperature and a slowdown in metabolism.

Most enzymes and biochemical compounds work in a warm environment, and without them the body will not be able to function.

Evgeny Fesenko: “Among the known types of gibernation, a person would theoretically fit the analogue of a hibern for a bear with a decrease in temperature by no more than 5–7 ℃ and a slowdown in metabolism by four times.

But the achievement of close indicators in humans with the help of, for example, pharmacological drugs is not the only task that is required to solve as part of the development of artificial gibbernation technology.

The bear has mechanisms that prevent muscle atrophy during hibernation.

It is far from the fact that these mechanisms will be able to reproduce.

In addition, the timing of the hibernation of bears is 3-6 months, while the duration of the trip, for example, is estimated at 7-10 months to Mars.

Probably, such a period will require a change in the periods of hibernation and wakefulness, which also complicates the situation.

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