"I have already seen it": when and why there is a deja vu
What is dejavu Many at least once had a feeling that a certain event had already happened, but they could not remember when and how.
For example, during a conversation with a friend on the street, it may seem to you that you were already standing in this place and heard the same words.
This is called the effect of deja vu.
As far as it is known, for the first time, the Roman poet Publius Ovid (43 BC – 18 years of AD) in his poem “Metamorphoses.
Book XV “.
Augustine tried to explain this experience 1600 years ago, calling him Falsae Memoriae (lat.
, “False Memory”).
The term Déjà vu (Fr.
, “already seen”) in 1867 was invented by Emil Boile – a philosopher and a parapsychologist (researcher of paranormal psychological phenomena, such as telepathy and clairvoyance).
In a letter to the editor of Revue Philosophique, he described his trip to an unfamiliar city, in which he constantly had a “feeling of recognition”.
In the scientific community, the term “dejavu” entrenched only 20 years later: at a meeting of the medical and psychological society, it was proposed to use the French neurologist Francois-Leon Arno.
Arno described the case of his patient – officer Louis, who served in French Indochina, but fell ill with malaria and went home.
After a year and a half, Louis began to show the symptoms of Dejavu: at the wedding of his brother, he said that he was already on her a year ago, remembers every detail and did not understand why they play her again.
And when he first arrived in a psychiatric hospital, he claimed that he was treated here last year, therefore he would recognize people and the situation.
Subsequently, Louis explained this like this: “I live in two parallel lives.
” The first unified scientific definition of Dejavu in 1983 was formulated by the South African neuropsychiatrist Vernon Nernon.
According to his theory, dejavu is “any subjectively inadequate feeling of recognition in the current feeling of an indefinite moment from the past.
” Nespe devoted to the study of this phenomenon the book “Psychology of Dejavu” and described in it about 20 varieties of deja experience, which including: déjà entendu – “already heard”; déjà baisée – “already tried”; déjà rakonté – “already told”; déjà bowl – “already coming to the head.
” Deja vu: esoterics against science Despite the constant attempts of science to explain the phenomenon of Dejavu, he was mystified and tried to interpret from the point of view of esotericism.
As a result, several anti -scientific hypotheses occurred.
Dejavu is memories from a past life.
This is how adherents of the theory of reincarnation believe.
Allegedly, the effect arises when a person falls into the environment and the environment familiar in previous lives.
For example, American singer Tina Turner suggests that in a past life was the queen of Egypt Hatshepsut.
She felt this when she experienced Dejavu during an excursion to the Egyptian pyramids.
Dejavu – confirmation of the existence of parallel worlds.
Supporters of this theory believe: a phenomenon arises because a person simultaneously lives the same event in two parallel universes.
At this moment, the worlds intersect and there is an alarming feeling of recognition.
Dejavu is a failure in the matrix.
The theory is inspired by the Hollywood fantastic film “Matrix”, in which humanity lives in simulation, and the world is controlled by machines with artificial intelligence.
Dejavu is a manifestation of clairvoyance abilities.
So some parapsychologists think.
According to theory, familiar sensations appear because a person has already seen a similar situation, but only in a dream, and thus learned his future.
0 Farm of Fantasy: Scientists are looking for evidence of our stay in the matrix How science explains Dejavu Modern studies of the dejaugu phenomenon are divided into observation and experimental.
In observation, the features of the experience of Dejavu are determined (who has, how often and when happens) and seek patterns in the results.
In experimental, scientists are trying to cause people to feel about dejavu.
We have identified several popular theories of the emergence of a phenomenon that are based on scientific research.
The phenomenon of memory The cognitive psychologist Anne Klerei from the University of Colorado, together with his colleagues, tried to create the effect of deja virtual reality with the help of The Sims.
First, the participants were shown a video where the hero moves around the back courtyard of the house – they looked at what was happening through the eyes of the hero.
And then – another video with movement in the situation, which very much resembled the previous one.
At the same time, they were asked if they would recognize the area and know where the hero would go further.
Some participants experienced Dejavu, but not everyone was able to guess the direction of the hero’s movement.
As a result, scientists suggested that Dejavu is the phenomenon of memory.
People fall into a situation that is similar to a real memory, but cannot reproduce it.
So the brain is looking for a similarity between new and past experience, and a person has a feeling of something familiar that he cannot definitely determine.
Social economy I look at you like in a mirror: who are doubles and why do we believe in them Hippocamp Hippocampus is a brain department that is involved in the mechanisms of memory formation.
The functions of the hippocampus have not been studied to the end, but the researchers suggest that when we perceive new information, the hippocampus can associate it with the existing one, which is recorded in long -term memory.
Scientists suggested: when there is a failure of synchronization of information, a person can perceive the present as what they saw earlier.
According to the head of the department of exogenous and organic disorders and epilepsy of the Moscow Research Institute of Psychiatry Vladimir Kalinin, the hippocampus is vulnerable to stress.
During long stressful situations, the adrenal glands emit the cortisol hormone, and its excessive amount damages the hippocampus.
As a result, the volume and mass of the hippocampus are reduced, due to which deja vu can occur.
Disorders of the temporal lobe of the brain Neurologists associate frequent experiences of the deja vu effect with temporal epilepsy – this is a type of epilepsy, the focus of which is in the temporal fraction of the brain.
People who suffer from this disease before the next attack experience something similar to deja vu: hallucinations associated with past memories.
A neurobiologist Lee Worms suggests that the effect is caused by irregular electrical impulses that create neural cells.
But according to him, one should not perceive the next deja vu as a sign of epilepsy.
Vyacheslav Filashikhin, candidate of medical sciences, psychiatrist, head physician of the psychiatric clinic “Rosa”: “With epilepsy, a certain part of the brain is overexcited, which causes a seizure.
Dezhavu really can be part of the aura – experiences and sensations that regularly arise before the attack.
But there are aless views of an epileptic attack.
Simply put, there is a focus of increased activity in the brain, it gives discharge, but not so strong that a seizure appears.
This type of epilepsy can manifest itself as an attack of a “dreary-elaborate” mood: when anger has anger in an even place, and after a few seconds it abruptly releases it.
Deja vu, like this attack, can be a basting option for epilepsy.
Such patients are sent to neurologists, EEG is removed, foci of overexcitation are found and treated.
” Split perception of information In the course of a study by a professor of psychology and neurology from US universities, they confirmed the possibility of a split perception of information.
The bottom line is that people perceive the same object or scene twice.
For example, a person for the first time walks along the street in a new city and a street cafe falls into his field of vision.
First, he notices him “out of the corner of his eye” because he is focused on passers -by.
But as a result of this quick glance, the brain receives a little information and processes it.
Therefore, when a person looks at the cafe with a conscious full look, he will not believe that he sees him for the first time.
So perception is duplicated, and perhaps this is why the effect of recognition arises.
Brain trying to fix an inaccurate memory The neurobiologist Akira O’Connor conducted a study during which he tried to recreate the effect of Dejavu in the laboratory.
He called the participants a list of words similar in meaning (bed, pillow, night), but at the same time avoided the key word “sleep”, which connects everyone else.
According to O’Connor, under the influence of false memories, people could believe that the list was on the list “sleep”.
Therefore, he first clarified whether the participants heard the words starting with the letter “C”.
They were sure that no.
But when they were later asked about the “dream”, they experienced something similar to deja vu.
In the process of research, O’Connor used functional MRI scanning to understand which parts of the brain are activated during the sensation of deja vu.
(Photo: PEXELS) Scanning of the brain of participants showed that during deja vu, the frontal areas of the brain are activated, which are involved in making decisions.
O’Connor suggested that the brain probably checks the information and sends a signal if he notices the error.
The neurobiologist presented the results of the study at the international conference from memory in Budapest.
After which, scientists put forward the theory: perhaps the brain is trying to correct inaccurate memories, so a certain resolution of the conflict can occur during deja vu.
Social economy Why do we need false memories? Dejavu is good or bad? With the help of experts, we tried to figure it out when deja vu is considered the norm, and in which cases – a pathology and a signal for seeking the help of specialists.
Dejavu as a consequence of fatigue and overstrain The neurobiologist Akira O’Connor believes that a healthy person can experience deja vu on average once a month.
But the sensation will occur more often against the background of increased fatigue and tension.
“When your brain gets tired, internal neural systems cannot restore and regulate itself normally.
As a result, the work of neurons is violated, which can lead to Dejavu, ”he explains.
Nikita Erin, psychologist of the platform of corporate well -being “understand”: “If you present the axis of mental disorders as coordinates from right to left (from health to pathology), then distress (prolonged stress, which negatively affects health) is able to shift the condition to the left.
The brain may not cope with the usual tasks.
For example, after three sleepless nights, the probability of hallucinations and delirium may increase, short -term memory worsens, interaction with long -term memory becomes difficult.
Therefore, with constant tension, people can experience deja vu more often.
” Vyacheslav Filashikhin: “Doctors have the term“ asthenia ” – this is the equivalent of human fatigue.
It can be earned, for example, if you spend a day without sleep: it will manifest in the form of a weak dreaming state, headache, and so on.
So, some doctors believe: to find out what diseases a person is predisposed to, you can see how he will manifest himself in asthenia.
For example, if the patient has hidden epilepsy, it may not appear when he sleeps and feels good.
But when he was tired (he does not sleep or drink a large dose of alcohol), he will have an asthenic condition for several days.
If at the same time he experiences deja vu, then he has some foci of overexcitation in the nervous system.
That is, when overwork, dejaugu will occur more often in those who are more likely to be predisposed to diseases.
” Dejavu as a symptom of the disease Doctor of Medical Sciences Pavel Vlasov and candidate of medical sciences Alexander Chervyakov in his work 2012 compared the characteristics of dejavu in healthy people and in patients with epilepsy and voluminous formations of the brain.
In the course of the study, the subjects also monitor the activity of the brain.
As a result, scientists made the following conclusions: In healthy subjects, dejaugu occurs, as a rule, several times a year, lasts up to 10 seconds and appears during the period of psycho-emotional stress and fatigue; In patients with epilepsy, deja vu can occur both in itself and against the background of an attack; With volumetric formations of the brain, deja vu is most often found with tumors, occurs several times a day, lasts longer than a minute.
It can manifest itself in itself or as part of an epileptic seizure.
At the same time, it is accompanied by negative emotions and fear of its occurrence.
Based on the study, scientists identified two types of deja vu: “Pathological-epileptic”-characteristic of patients with epilepsy and is an analogue of an epileptic seizure.
“Nepatological-neopileptic” is a psychological phenomenon that occurs in most healthy people.
Thus, the study showed – it is not the fact of the presence of deja vu, but a change in its characteristics: lengthening, increasing, fear of waiting and a negative perception of the phenomenon.
Vyacheslav Filashikhin: “Dejavu can really be a symptom of the disease.
Most often, the effect is manifested in two diseases: epilepsy and encephalopathy – the consequences of mechanical damage to the brain tissue.
Deja vu frequency criteria, which are the norm or pathology, does not exist.
For psychiatrists, the criterion of pathology is frequency and regularity.
For example, if a person has a deja vu once a year, but regularly.
Or he experiences deja vu every night or every day.
These are symptoms that require research and assessment to exclude the disease.
It is also important whether a person is worried about his manifestations of deja vu: if they scare him, then this is also a symptom.
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