Sounds of nature and adaptable biofuels: digest eco-nomikov № 15

Sounds of nature and adaptable biofuels: digest eco-nomikov № 15

Theme of the week: the UN will “listen” to nature in order to protect biodiversity Each ecosystem “sounds” in its own way: animals and birds in different parts of the world “speak” in different dialects, plants rustling in a special way in the wind, and water in streams and rivers also does not make noise everywhere.

This is how the unique soundscape of the terrain is formed.

The team of scientists from the UK, Australia and the USA drew attention to this characteristic of the environment.

They developed algorithms that analyze the sound landscape and evaluate the level of human activity and health of the ecosystem.

The neural network was trained on a large number of audio recordings from different parts of the world: from the tropical forests of the island of Borneo to plains with a temperate climate in the state of New York.

It analyzes sounds and finds those that are not characteristic of this area, such as the buzzing of a chainsaw.

The plus of the system is that it is easy to implement.

The neural network is studying itself, it does not need to be controlled.

The most important thing is to give her as many high -quality sound material as possible.

After training, she will continue to work autonomously and will give a signal only if she “hears” something unusual.

If the technology is widely used, employees of reserves and national parks will be able to quickly catch violators and better protect biodiversity.

The problem of the week: how is the bankruptcy of oil producing companies threatens ecology Due to the pandemic of coronavirus and the fall in the demand for hydrocarbons, oil and gas companies, the United States began to bankrupt.

Among them are large corporations such as Whiting Petroleum, Cheesapeake Energy and Diamond Offshore Drilling.

According to the forecasts of the American analytical center Rystad Energy, by the end of 2021, another 250 mining companies may become bankrupt.

At first glance, this is a positive trend: people began to produce less oil and more actively use renewable energy sources.

This will help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and cope with global warming.

But not everything is so simple.

Many American companies produce shale oil and use the Fracking Hydrack Technology for this.

At the same time, at first they are drilled a deep well to the level where hydrocarbons lie.

At this depth, a horizontal shaft is formed, after which a special liquid is pumped into it under high pressure.

Under its influence, the land around the mine begins to crack, and oil or gas comes from the holes.

Then they are pumped out to the surface and transported to the processing sites.

The method itself raises questions from ecologists.

For example, it is believed that chemicals from a liquid that is used for hydraulic explosion can fall into the water supply system.

But bankruptcy of mining companies created another problem: the mines remained open, and methane stands out of them.

This is one of the greenhouse gases that affect climate change.

According to a recent study, there are now 3 million abandoned wells in the United States, 2 million of which are open and throw methane.

The same amount of greenhouse gases produced 1.

5 million cars in a year.

At the same time, bankrupt companies did not allocate funds for the correct closure of mines, and in the conditions of the pandemic it is unclear whether the country’s authorities will be able to find a way out of this situation.

Article of the week The popularity of renewable energy sources is growing, but about biofuel, everything seems to have forgotten In 2011, the plane of the American company Honeywell International Inc made the world’s first flight on biofuel, which was made on the basis of red -haired oil.

Thanks to this, 5.

5 tons of carbon dioxide got into the atmosphere less than during the usual flight.

But the technology has not become popular: according to the International Economic Agency, the share of biofuel in 2018 amounted to only 0.


Investments in this area also fell: from $ 22.

9 billion in 2007 to $ 500 million in 2019.

The main reason is that investments in the creation of biofuel are not given a quick return.

It takes more than 10 years to study and develop the final product, and complex supplies chains make it expensive.

Therefore, despite the fact that some companies are still creating biofuel, this industry will not be able to develop quickly without state support.

Research of the week Basalt dust will help remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere A group of scientists from the UK, the USA and Belgium suggested scattering stone crumbs in the fields to catch CO2 from the air.

An article about this is published in Nature magazine.

Basalt is best for such a project.

This is a by -product of the development of mines and mines, which is why basalt crumbs are cheap and easily accessible material.

Due to the large calcium content, basalt quickly reacts chemical weathering, as a result of which carbon dioxide becomes part of the carbonate.

In turn, these substances play the role of fertilizers, which will make the soil more fertile.

According to the calculations of scientists, when using a new method from the air, it will be possible to remove up to 2 billion tons of CO2 by 2050.

The most benefit basalt crumbs can be brought to the United States, China, India and Brazil, because in these countries the most suitable climatic conditions for the work of this technology.

With its widespread use by 2030, the United States and China will be able to compensate for 5-10%of all its carbon dioxide emissions, India-40%, and Brazil-100%.

The figure of the week $ 1, spent on environmental programs for oceans, creates $ 5 for the global economy.

For example, thanks to the protection of mangrove forests, the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will be less, and there are more fish in coastal areas.

This stimulates the development of fishing and creates new jobs.

Source: Research of World Resources Institute.

One line In the village of Tukhard, the Krasnoyarsk Territory, the emergency mode was introduced after the spill of 44 tons of aviation fuel.

A startup from the UK created a portable water vestigator.

A plant will appear in the UAE, which will receive drinking water from wet air.

France will begin to massively produce “green” hydrogen.

Johnnie Walker whiskey will be released in “paper” bottles.

In Chernogolovka, the first hydrogen gas station in Russia opened.

We developed a packaging for fast -cook noodles, which turns into a sauce.

Vollebak began to make hours from processed electronics.

Trinamix mobile application will help sort waste.

What to watch The Swedish startup Doconomy has developed a calculator that calculates the environmental trace of goods.

The solution analyzes the emissions that occur during the production, transportation and sale of the product.

The application shows the results in the form of infographics.

So companies will be able to see the most “dirty” stage in the creation of goods and think about more environmentally friendly methods of production and delivery.

Now the program works only with clothing items, but in the future the 2030 Calculator functionality will expand.

What to listen to “Green” podcast DEEPLA trends The new release of the “green” podcast is dedicated to how to form environmental habits in the office.

The expert of this episode is the head of the group for working with the suppliers of Raiffeisenbank Andrei Sosov.

He is responsible for ensuring that the employees have everything necessary to complete the tasks, and ensures that these items are environmentally friendly.

On the example of Raiffeisenbank, Andrei Sosov told how employees affect the company’s environmental initiatives on how to launch a separate waste collection and how to “green” the office as a whole.

What to read The Conversation publication has prepared a selection of five art books, the authors of which affect the issues of careful attitude to nature.

Among them, Richard Powers’s novel “The Overstory” (“Upper Tier”).

The heroes of the book are trying to draw the attention of society to the problems of the ecology, in particular the cutting of forests.

Green economy Nine interesting books about ecology The narrative develops like a growing tree, the roots of which are protagonists themselves, and their stories are branches.

For this novel, Powers received the Pulitzer Prize in 2019.

The list also includes: The novel “Disgrace” (“dishonor”) John Maxwell Kutzee, in which, among other things, the issue of cruelty to animals raises; The book “My Year of Meats” (“My meat year”) Ruth Oodki on the production of meat; The work “The Man with the Compound Eyes” (“Man with Facet eyes”) of the Taiwanese writer Wu Ming-i, who talks about the lack of resources and the problem of garbage dumps; The novel “Animal’s People” (“Animal People”) of Indian author Indra Sinch about the accident at the Bhopal chemical plant in 1984.

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